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Full text of "Processing qualities of apple cultivars."

I dfc Agriculture 



Canada 

Research Direction generale 
Branch de la recherche 



Contribution 1983-25E 




Processing qualities of 
apple cultivars 



630. 
C759 
C 83 
OOAg 
c.3 




Canada 



The map on the cover has dots representing 
Agriculture Canada research establishments. 



Processing qualities of 
apple cultivars 



W. P. MOHR, R.G. ADAIR, and D.J. CRAVEN 

Processing Laboratory 
Smithfield Experimental Farm 
Agriculture Canada 
Trenton, Ontario 

Smithfield Technical Bulletin No. 6 



Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 
1984 



Copies of this publication are available from: 

Dr. S.R. Miller 

Smithfield Experimental Farm 

Research Branch, Agriculture Canada 

P.O. Box 340 

Trenton, Ontario 

K8V 5R5 



Produced by Research Program Service 

©Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1984 

figalement disponible en francais sous le titre 

Qualites des cultivars de pommes pour la transformation 



CONTENTS 

SUMMARY /v 

INTRODUCTION /I 

MCINTOSH TYPE /3 
Geneva Mcintosh /3 
Historical Mcintosh /3 
Imperial Mcintosh /3 
Mcintosh VC309 /3 
Macspur /4 
Rogers Mcintosh /4 

RED DELICIOUS TYPE /4 

Miller Sturdeespur Delicious /4 
Ri chared Delicious /4 
Starkrimson Delicious /5 

GOLDEN DELICIOUS TYPE /5 
Golden Delicious /5 
Golden Delicious C-449 /5 
Honey gold /6 
Sinta /6 
BC-10C-6-12 /6 
Smoothee /6 



/7 



B-RESISTANT TYPE 


Britegold /7 


Co-op 1 


No. 1 11 


Macfree /I 


Moi ra 


/8 


Murray 


/8 


Prima 


/8 


Prisci 


11a /9 


Sir Prize /9 


Trent 


/9 


0-521 


/10 


0-5210 


/10 


0-544 


/10 


0-545 


/10 


0-546 


/n 


0-547 


/n 


0-5410 


/n 


0-5412 


/12 


0-564 


/12 


0-591 


/12 


0-621 


/12 


0-622 


/13 



0-623 /13 

0-624 /13 

0-637 /13 

0-642 /14 

0-644 /14 

0-645 /14 

0-646 /14 
0-6412 /14 
0-6413 /15 

0-654 /15 

0-661 /15 

0-663 /15 

0-665 /16 
0-6611 /16 

OTHER TYPES (MOSTLY ESTABLISHED VARIETIES) /16 
Anderson Jonathan /16 
Chieftain /17 



Empire 


/17 




George 


/17 




I da red 


/17 




Jonnee 


/18 




Jerseyred /1£ 


1 


Loyalist /1 8 




Lindel 


/19 




Melrose 


/19 




Moss 's 


Seedlir 


ig /19 


Mutsu 


/19 




Northern Spy 


/20 


Rhode I 


si and Greening 


Golden 


Russet 


/20 


Sandel 


/21 




Spartan 


/21 




Spigold 


/21 




Tydeman 


's Red 


111 


West Virginia 


Red York 



/20 



111 

SUMMARY OF MOST PROMISING CULTIVARS /23 



SUMMARY 

This publication summarizes our evaluation of apple cultivars for 
commercial storing and processing. Established varieties and promising 
selections grown at the Smithfield Experimental Farm up to and including 
the 1981 crop year are included. In addition to the saucing and slicing 
qualities reported in previous editions, this update includes results 
obtained in recent years on the juicing properties of some cultivars. 

Many of the newer varieties and scab- resistant selections were found 
to be suitable for specific packs. They compared favorably with older 
standard varieties in quality attributes and other properties affecting 
overall performance for processing. Scab-resistant lines are of particular 
interest because of their potential for reducing production costs. 



- 1 - 



INTRODUCTION 

Apple cultivars grown at the Smithfield Experimental Farm have been 
evaluated yearly since 1959 for their commercial processing potential. Most 
of the varieties being grown in Canada as well as promising scab-resistant 
seedlings have been tested. This publication includes results obtained in 
recent years on the juicing qualities of cultivars, in addition to the 
saucing and slicing qualities reported previously. The evaluations are based 
on results up to and including the 1981 crop year. 

Numbered selections starting with are Ottawa selections. Unless 
otherwise noted, the apples were grown at the Experimental Farm, Smithfield. 

After they were picked, the apples were placed in refrigerated storage 
at 0°C. Samples were examined and tested periodically for firmness in order 
to assess storage properties. Processed packs were prepared when the fresh- 
stored fruit reached a firmness index of approximately 6.4 kg on a fruit- 
pressure tester fitted with an 11 -mm tip. 

Most of the cultivars were efficiently peeled and cored in conventional 
mechanical peelers, and required little hand trimming. The few that were 
difficult to peel have been identified in the text. This difficulty was 
usually associated with apples that were larger than 9 cm in diameter, had 
pronounced angular or lopsided shapes, or had knobby ends-- characteristics 
peculiar to certain cultivars. 

The terms 'low,' 'medium, 1 and 'high' contents of soluble solids (SS) 
and titratable acidity (TA) are used to indicate the following levels: 

Soluble solids (%) Titratable acid {%) 

Low < 10.5 <0.4 

Medium 10.5-13.0 0.4-0.8 

High >13.0 >0.8 

The methods used to prepare our test packs were similar to commercial 
methods. For the slices test pack, the apples were peeled, sliced, dipped 
in sodium metabisulfi te, fast frozen at -29°C, and stored at -20°C until 
evaluated as pie. For the sauce test pack, the finisher, cooker-heater, 
and retort were operated to provide conditions similar to those used in 
industry. Our rating of a cultivar for sauce was based on its usefulness 
for blending with readily available cultivars such as Mcintosh, and not 
necessarily on its properties as a finished sauce by itself. (For an 
explanation of terms used in describing texture, see Mohr, W. P. 1973. 
Applesauce 'grain.' J. Texture Stud. 4(2) :263-268. ) For the juice test 
pack, the apples were chopped in a Fitzmill, pressed in a Wi limes press, 
and the juice clarified, using enzyme at 15°C. Total yield is the 
percentage by weight of juice recovered from apples used. Usable juice is 
the total percentage pressed less the percentage volume settled during 
clarification. Specific gravity is determined on clarified juice. Juicing 
properties have been assessed only in recent years and are not available for 
all cultivars. 



- 2 



Ratings of excellent, good, fair, and poor are used throughout the 
report to assess properties of interest. Table 1 defines these ratings 
for the three types of test packs. 



Table 1. Ratings for the three pack types 





E 
(Excellent) 


G 
(Good) 


F 
(Fair) 


P 
(Poor) 


SLICES 










Flavor 

Color 

Texture 

Wholeness 


intense, normal 

bright intense 
yellow 
firm, crisp, 
tender 

completely 
whole 


moderate, normal 

yellow 

fairly firm, 
tender 

mostly whole 


mild, normal 

lacking in 

color 

slightly soft 

or slightly 

tough 

some whole 

pieces 


flat, perfumy, 

off 

dull pink or 

tan 

soft, sloughed 

or rubbery 

no wholeness 
retention 


SAUCE 










Flavor 

Color 

Texture 


intense, normal 

bright intense 

yellow 

grai ny 


moderate, normal 

yellow 

some grain 


mild, normal 

lacking in 
color 
little grain 


flat, perfumy, 

off 

dull tan or 

pink 

smooth, no 

grain 


JUICE 










Flavor 
Color 


intense, normal 

bright intense 
yellow 


moderate, normal 
yellow 


mild, normal 

lacking in 
color 


flat, perfumy, 

off 

dull , dark 


Total yield 


>80% 


70-80% 


60-70% 


<60% 


Usable yield >70% 


55-70% 


40-55% 


<40% 


Specific 
gravity 


p>1.065 


1.050-1.065 


1.035-1.050 


<1.035 



- 3 - 



The following cultivars are grouped according to their type as commonly 
referred to by the industry. 

MCINTOSH TYPE 

Geneva Mcintosh 

Bud mutation of Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September. Processed late November to early January. 

Medium-sized fruit. Medium SS and TA. Easy oeeler. 



Slices : 
flavor. 
Sauce : 
texture 



Tested 2 years 
Poor wholeness 
Tested 2 years. 
Mild flavor. 



Mild 



Cream- tan. Soft, smooth texture 
retention. Rated poor overall. 
Pale cream-yellow to light tan. Smooth 
Rated poor overall . 



Historical Mcintosh 



Budwood three generations from original tree in Dundas County. 

Harvested late September. Processed early January. Medium-sized fruit 

Low SS and medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Dull yellow. Soft texture. Mild flavor. 

Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Bright light green-yellow. Fair to good 

texture and flavor. Rated good overall. 



Imperial Mcintosh 

Bud mutation of Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September. Processed early January 

White flesh. Medium SS and TA. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Light dull yellow. Smooth texture 

flavor. Rated fair overall. 



Medium-sized fruit 



Mild 



Mcintosh VC309 

Virus-tested Mcintosh strain, Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, 

Vineland Station. 

Harvested late September. Processed late November. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Cream- tan. Soft, smooth texture. Slightly 

aromatic flavor. Poor wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Slightly tan. Slightly grainy texture. Normal 

flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Medium amber. Fair flavor. Good total yield. 

Fair percentage of usable juice after clarification. Excellent specific 

gravity. Compares well with Northern Spy. Rated good overall. 

Better commercial processing potential for juice than for slices or 
sauce. 



- 4 - 



Macspur 

Compact spur mutant of Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September. Processed late November. Medium-sized fruit. 

Low to medium SS and medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Cream-yellow. Very soft texture. Mild 

flavor. Poor wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce : Tested 4 years. Pale cream-yellow. Slightly grainy texture. 

Mild flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Fair to good color. Mild flavor. Fair total 

yield. Poor percentage of usable juice after clarification. Rated fair 

overall . 

Barely acceptable either as sauce or as juice; poor as slices. 

Rogers Mcintosh 

Bud mutation of Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September. Processed early January. Medium-sized fruit. 

Fresh fruit had best appearance of all Mcintosh strains tested. 

Medium SS and TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Light green-yellow. Tender, soft texture. 

Normal flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Smooth texture. Mild flavor. 

Rated poor overall . 

RED DELICIOUS TYPE 

Miller Sturdeespur Delicious 

Whole tree mutation in a Starking Delicious orchard. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late December to early January. 

Large-sized fruit. High SS and low TA. In 1979, moldy core. Difficult 

peeler. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright yellow to cream-yellow. Slightly tough 

texture. Good flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Bright yellow. Coarse texture. Good flavor. 

Rated good overall . 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Poor dark amber. Slightly aromatic flavor. 

Good total yield. Good pulp settlement during gravity clarification, 

giving good percentage of usable juice recovery. Rated fair overall. 

Texture seems to be a problem in years tested -- tough slices and 
coarse sauce. 

Ri chared Delicious 

Bud mutation of Delicious. 

Harvested mid-October to late October. Processed mid-January to late 
January. Medium-sized fruit. Medium to high SS and low TA. Difficult 
peeler. Usually develops water core in storage. 



- 5 - 



Slices : Tested 13 years. Bright intense yellow. Tender to slightly 
tough texture. Mild flavor. Usually good wholeness retention. Rated 
good overall . 

Sauce : Tested 14 years. Bright intense yellow. Fairly coarse texture. 
Mild flavor. High water absorbency. Rated good overall. 

Overall ratings have been consistently good in the years tested since 
1972. Prior to 1972, the rating for both sauce quality and slice 
quality was poor because of the cream color, coarse texture, and flat 
flavor. 

Starkrimson Delicious 

Whole tree variation of Starking Delicious; Oregon 1953. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late January. Medium- to large-sized 

fruit. Usually develops water core in storage. Medium SS and low TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright intense yellow. Tender, slightly grainy 

texture. Mild flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Green-yellow tan. Very coarse texture. Slightly 

aromatic flavor. Rated poor overall. 

Juice : Tested 2 years. Poor color. Good flavor. Good total yield. 

Good specific gravity. Good pulp settlement during gravity clarification, 

giving good percentage of usable juice recovery. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential for slices but not for sauce. 



GOLDEN DELICIOUS TYPE 

Golden Delicious 

Parentage unknown -- chance seedling from West Virginia 1916. 
Harvested mid-October. Processed late November. Moisture loss during 
storage causes skin to shrivel. Tendency to russet. Medium-sized fruit 
Medium to high SS and low to medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 14 years. Intense yellow. Tender, smooth texture. 
Good flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 
Sauce : Tested 13 years. Intense yellow. Fairly grainy, slightly 
coarse texture. Sweet flavor. Good base cultivar for sauce. Requires 
a lengthy blanch. Rated good overall. 

Golden Delicious C-449 

Spur of Golden Delicious. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late December to early January. 

Medium-sized fruit. Medium to high SS and low TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright intense yellow. Soft texture. Good 

flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Bright intense yellow. Grainy texture. Good 

flavor. Rated good overall. 



- 6 - 



Compared with Golden Delicious, equal in quality but longer in storage 
life for the year tested. Further testing is required to determine 
storage life. 



Honeygold 



Golden Delicious x Haralson. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late November in fair condition. Some 

core mold. Medium SS and low TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright yellow. Tender, firm texture. Normal 

flavor. Very good wholeness retention. Rated excellent overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Medium yellow. Slightly grainy texture. 

Slightly flat flavor. Rated good overall. 

Slice quality is equal to Northern Spy but has better color. Sauce 
quality is also equal to Northern Spy, with slightly poorer color but 
better texture. Further studies are necessary to confirm that processing 
qualities are consistent. 



Sinta 



A seedling of Golden Delicious x Grimes Golden, named in 1970. 
Harvested late October. Processed early December. Some shoulder 
russeting. Some core mold. Medium to high SS and low to medium TA. 
Slices : Tested 3 years. Medium intense yellow. Soft, tender texture. 
Mild flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 
Sauce : Tested 4 years. Light tan-light yellow. Grainy texture. Mild 
flavor. Rated good overall. 



BC-10C-6-12 



Winesap x Golden Delicious, 1944 cross, selected in 1956 at Summerland, 

B.C. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late November. Slightly green flesh. 

Medium-sized fruit. High SS and medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Light yellow to medium yellow. Tender texture 

Good flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Light yellow to green-yellow. Coarse texture. 

Fair to good flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Greater commercial processing potential for slices than for sauce. 
Further testing is necessary. 



Smoothee 



A true Golden Delicious mutation. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late December. Medium-sized fruit. 

High SS and low to medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 4 years. Intense yellow. Slightly soft texture. Mild 

flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 



- 7 - 



Sauce : Tested 4 years. Intense yellow. Slightly coarse grainy texture, 
Mild flavor. Rated good overall. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Light amber. Normal flavor. Fair total yield. 
Excellent specific gravity. Poor percentage of usable juice after 
clarification. Rated good overall. 

Greater commercial processing potential for sauce than for slices. 
Further testing is required on juice to determine yield potential. 



SCAB-RESISTANT TYPE 

Britegold 

Formerly 0-652. Named in 1979. Parents include Melba, Red Delicious, 
and Sandow. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed early November. Medium- to large- 
sized fruit. Yellow flesh. Oxidizes quickly. Difficult to blanch. 
Low to medium SS and low TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright medium yellow. Mild flavor. Good 
wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Dull yellow. Coarse texture. Mild flavor. 
Rated fair overall . 

Good commercial processing potential for slices but not for sauce. 
Further testing is necessary to confirm color. 

Co-op No. 1 

Parents include Starr, Wealthy, Melba, Red Rome, and Jonathan. 

Harvested early September. Processed early November. Small -si zed 

fruit. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Light cream. Good texture. Tart flavor. 

Rated fair overall . 

Limited commercial processing potential for sauce. 

Macfree 

Formerly 0-532. Named in 1974. Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, 

Rome Beauty, and Mai us floribunda 821 . 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late November. Small- to medium-sized 

fruit. White flesh with green tinge. Low to medium SS and TA. Easy 

peeler. 

Slices : Tested 4 years . Dull cream. Smooth texture. Mild flavor. 

Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 6 years. Dull cream-white. Slightly grainy texture. 

Mild flavor. Rated poor overall. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Very good color and flavor. Fair percentage of 

usable juice recovery. Rated good overall. 



- 8 - 



Limited commercial processing potential for either slices or sauce 



Moira 



Formerly 0-548. Named in 1979. Mcintosh x Dg 22-81. 
Harvested mid-October. Processed early December. Medium-sized fruit. 
White flesh, sometimes with pink streaks. Slightly elongated. 
Medium to low SS and medium TA. Easy peeler. 



Slices 



Tested 6 years. White. Tender to tough texture 
Fair to excellent wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 
Sauce : Tested 6 years. Creamy white. Smooth to slightly grainy 
texture. Mild to slightly perfumy flavor. Rated poor overall. 
Juice : Tested 1 year. Fair total yield. Fair specific gravity. 
Limited information available. Rated fair overall. 



Mild flavor. 



Limited commercial processing potential 



Murray 



Formerly 0-628. Named in 1979. Mcintosh x 52-05-26. 

Harvested late August to mid-September. Processed early November. 

Small- to medium-sized fruit. Low SS and TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Dull white, \lery soft texture. Normal 

flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce: Tested 2 years . Dull white. Smooth texture. Mild flavor 



Rated poor overall 
Juice : Tested 1 year. 
Rated fair overall . 



Good color. Poor flavor. Fair total yield 



Limited commercial processing potential. 



Prima 



Formerly Co-op No. 2 
Mai us floribunda 821 , 



Named in 1970. Parents include Rome Beauty, 
and Golden Delicious. 



Harvested late September 
fruit. White flesh with 
shape. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. 
Good wholeness retention 
Sauce : Tested 2 years. 
Rated good overall . 
Juice : Tested 2 years. 
Fair total yield 



Processed early November, 
green tinge. Medium SS and 



Medium- si zed 
TA. Irregular 



Bright medium yellow. Good texture. 

Fair to good flavor. Rated good overall. 
Light yellow. Grainy texture. Fair flavor. 



Excellent color, 
Rated fair overall . 



Poor to fair flavor. 



Flavor detracts from both slice quality and sauce quality and is 
objectionable in juice. 



- 9 - 



Priscilla 

Formerly Co-op No. 4. Named in 1972. Parents include Red Delicious, 

Rome Beauty, Golden Delicious, and Mcintosh. 

Harvested early October. Processed late November to early January. 

Medium- to large-sized fruit. Oxidizes quickly. Sometimes develops 

water core in storage. Yellow flesh. Difficult to blanch. Medium to 

high SS and low TA. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Intense yellow. Fair to good texture. 

Good flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 3 years. Light yellow. Coarse grainy texture. Good 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

Juice : Tested 2 years. Poor color. Poor to fair flavor. Fair total 

yield. Rated fair overall. 

Limited commercial processing potential for juice. 

Sir Prize 

Formerly Co-op No. 5 and P-673-20. Parents include Rome Beauty, 

Mai us floribunda 821 , Golden Delicious, and Doud. 

Harvested late September. Processed early December. Shape similar 

to that of Delicious. High SS and TA. Difficult peeler. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright yellow. Soft texture. Slightly tart 

flavor. Poor wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Bright yellow. Fine grainy texture. Tart 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

High acid tart flavor could enhance flavor of more bland cultivars 
in blends for sauce or juice. 



Trent 



Formerly 0-531. Named in 1979. Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, 

Rome Beauty, and Mai us floribunda 821 . 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late January. Stores well until 

April. Medium-sized fruit. Some bitter pit. Medium SS and TA. 

Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 12 years. Light yellow. Firm texture. Normal 

flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 9 years. Light yellow. Slightly grainy texture. Normal 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

Juice : Tested 3 years. Good color. Watery weak flavor. Poor to fair 

total yield. Excellent for pulp settlement in pressed juice after 

clarification. Rated fair overall. 

Greater commercial processing potential for slices and sauce than for 
juice. 



- 10 - 

0-521 

Parents include Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Mai us floribunda 821 
Harvested late September. Processed late November. Small- to medium- 
sized fruit. Large core cavity. Shape similar to that of Delicious. 
Low to medium SS and medium to high TA. Difficult peeler. 
Slices : Tested 8 years. Cream-white. Tender texture. Tart flavor. 
Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 
Sauce : Tested 9 years. Light yellow to cream-white with tinge of 
green or tan. Smooth texture. Very tart flavor. Rated fair overall. 
Juice : Tested 5 years. Good to excellent color. Good flavor. Good 
total yield. Fair specific gravity. Fair percentage of usable juice 
after clarification. Rated good overall. 

Although color and texture are not ideal, the high acid tart flavor 
should be useful to upgrade more bland cultivars in sauce and juice 
production. 



0-5210 



Parents include Melba, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Mai us floribunda 821 . 
Harvested late August. Processed early November. Medium-sized fruit. 
Oblong shape. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Dull white. Coarse texture. Perfumy flavor. 
Rated poor overall . 

Poor commercial processing potential. 

0-544 

Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Mai us floribunda 821 

Harvested late October to early November. Processed early December. 

Small- to medium-sized fruit. White flesh. Medium to high SS and low 

to medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 4 years. Dull white. Poor texture. Mild flavor. Poor 

to fair wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce : Tested 5 years. Cream-white. Slightly coarse grainy texture. 

Mild flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Poor dark amber. Fair flavor. Fair total yield. 

Excellent specific gravity. Poor percentage of usable juice after 

clarification. Rated poor overall. 

Poor commercial processing potential. 

0-545 

Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, and Mai us floribunda 821 
Harvested early September to early October. Processed mid-November to 
early January. Medium-sized fruit. White flesh. Slightly elongated. 
Medium SS and TA. Easy peeler. 



- 11 - 



Slices : Tested 5 years. Light yellow. Very soft texture. Slightly 
tart flavor. Poor wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 
Sauce : Tested 6 years. Light yellow. Smooth to slightly grainy 
texture. Slightly tart flavor. Rated good overall. 
Juice : Tested 1 year. Poor total yield. Poor specific gravity. 
Rated poor overall . 



Some commercial processing potential for 
both slice and juice production. 



sauce but limited value for 



0-546 

Parents include Rome Beauty, Jonathan, Mcintosh, and Mai us floribunda 821 

Harvested late October. Processed December to mid- January. Medium-sized 

fruit. Low SS and medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 8 years. White to dull cream. Soft texture. Normal 

flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 7 years. Cream-yellow to green-yellow. Smooth texture. 

Good flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Juice : Tested 2 years. Fair color, flavor, and total yield. Rated 

fair overall . 

Limited commercial processing potential because of low SS and lack of 
color. 

0-547 

Mcintosh x Dg 20-9. Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 

and Mai us floribunda 821 . 

Harvested early October. Processed early November. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium to high SS and low TA. Easy to peel. Oxidizes quickly. 

Difficult to blanch. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Dull white. Coarse texture. Poor flavor. 

Rated poor overall . 

Limited commercial processing potential. 

0-5410 

Mcintosh x Dg 20-9. Parents include Mcintosh, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, 

and Mai us floribunda 821 . 

Harvested late September. Processed early November. Small-sized fruit. 

Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Medium yellow. Firm, slightly tough texture. 

Fair to good flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Very light yellow. Good texture. Fair flavor. 

Rated fair overall . 



Limited commercial processing potential because of the fair rating for 
both wholeness retention in slices and flavor in sauce. 



- 12 - 



0-5412 



Mcintosh x Dg 22-18. 

Harvested late September to mid-October. Processed late November to 

mid- January. Medium-sized fruit. Some bitter pit. Medium SS and 

medium to high TA. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Dull brown-yellow. Soft to tough, rubbery 

texture. Mild flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated fair 

overall . 

Sauce : Tested 3 years. Variable color (pink-white/green-yellow/ 

bright light yellow) . Smooth to coarse texture. Mild to yery tart 

flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Good color. Fair flavor. Fair total yield. 

Rated fair overall . 

Quality variations in different test years indicate a need for 
further testing. 



0-564 



Mcintosh x 10-147 Dg 20T9 . 

Harvested early October. Processed early December. No other information 

available. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-tan. Fair texture. Fair flavor. Rated 

fair overall . 

Preliminary testing in 1973 suggests limited commercial processing 
potential . 



0-591 



49-121E x Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September. Processed late November. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and high TA. Easy to peel. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright intense yellow. Firm, tender texture. 

Good flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Smooth texture. Very tart flavor. 

Rated fair overall . 

Color difference in products packed indicates further testing is 
required. 



0-621 



0-521 x Mcintosh. Parents include Melba and Mcintosh. 

Harvested mid-September at Saint-Jean, Quebec, and early October at 

Smithfield Experimental Farm. Processed late November. Medium-sized 

fruit. Medium SS and high TA. Fair peeler. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Smooth texture. Tart, aromatic 

flavor. Rated poor overall. 

Juice : Tested 4 years. Medium amber. Good flavor. Poor total yield. 

Rated fair overall . 

Poor commercial processing potential. 



- 13 - 

0-622 

0-521 x Mcintosh. Parents include Melba and Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September at Saint-Jean, Quebec, and early October at 

Smithfield Experimental Farm. Processed early November. Medium-sized 

fruit. Medium SS and medium to high TA. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. White- light tan. Poor texture. Poor flavor, 

Poor wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream color. Soft texture. Fair flavor. 

Rated poor overall . 

Juice : Tested 4 years. Light amber-yellow. Very good flavor. Fair 

total yield. Fair specific gravity. Rated good overall. 

Limited commercial processing potential for juice; poor for sauce and 
slices. 



0-623 



0-521 x Mcintosh. Parents include Melba and Mcintosh. 

Harvested early September to early October. Processed late November 

to early January. Medium-sized fruit. Large core cavity. Medium SS 

and TA. Poor peeler. Elongated shape. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Coarse texture. Mild, perfumy 

flavor. Rated poor overall. 

Juice : Tested 4 years. Poor amber. Good flavor. Fair total yield. 

Fair specific gravity. Rated fair overall. 

Limited commercial processing potential for either sauce or juice. 



0-624 



0-521 x Mcintosh. Parents include Melba and Mcintosh. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late November. Should be processed 

early November. Medium SS and high TA. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white, yery grainy texture. Tart flavor. 

Rated poor overall. Further testing is needed to verify storage life 

and sauce potential . 



0-637 



Mcintosh x 0-525. Parents include Mcintosh and Melba. 

Harvested early October. Processed late November. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and high TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Yellow to cream-yellow. Soft texture. Normal 

flavor. Very good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Light yellow to light tan. Smooth texture. 

Slightly tart, aromatic flavor. Rated poor overall. 

Limited commercial processing potential for both slices and sauce. 



- 14 - 

0-642 

Mcintosh x 0-522. Parents include Mcintosh and Melba. 

Harvested mid-October at Saint- Jean, Quebec. Processed early February. 

Low SS and TA. 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Good color. Good flavor. Good total yield. 

Poor specific gravity. Rated good overall. 

0-644 

0-527 x Lobo. Parents include Melba and Lobo. 

Harvested late September. Processed mid-November. Small- to medium- 
sized fruit. Medium SS and high TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. White. Soft texture. Tart flavor. Poor 
wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. White. Smooth texture. Tart, aromatic flavor, 
Rated poor overall . 

Limited or no commercial processing potential. 

0-645 

0-527 x Lobo. Parents include Melba and Lobo. 

Harvested mid-September. Processed late November. Medium- to large- 
sized fruit. Scald in storage. Medium SS and TA. 
Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright light tan to yellow. Mealy texture. 
Normal flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 
Sauce : Tested 1 year. Bright light tan to yellow. Smooth texture. 
Aromatic flavor. Rated poor overall. 

Limited commercial processing potential. 

0-646 

Mcintosh x 0-522. Parents include Mcintosh and Melba. 

Harvested late September. Processed late October. Small-sized fruit. 

White flesh. Medium SS and TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. White. Fair texture. Mild, flat flavor. 

Fair to good wholeness. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Smooth texture. Aromatic flavor. 

Rated poor overall . 

Limited or no commercial processing potential. 

0-6412 

Mcintosh x 0-522. Parents include Mcintosh and Melba. 

Harvested early October. Processed late November. Medium-sized fruit. 

In 1981, some core mold. Medium SS and TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Light yellow to light tan. Soft, smooth 

texture. Mild, slightly aromatic flavor. Fair wholeness retention. 

Rated poor overall . 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Bright intense yellow. Grainy texture. 

Excellent flavor. Rated excellent overall. 



- 15 - 



Rated top cultivar for sauce in both years tested. Poor potential 

for slices based on 1981 test year. Marked color and flavor differences 

between the two pack types indicate a need for further testing. 



0-6413 



0-527 x Lobo. Parents include Melba and Lobo. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late November. Small-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Light yellow. Good texture. Very good flavor, 

Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Light yellow. Slightly grainy texture. Good 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential. Slice quality better than that 
of Northern Spy in 1974. 



0-654 



0-522 x Sandel . Parents include Melba, Red Delicious, and Sandow. 

Harvested late September to early October. Processed late November 

to early January. Best in early December. In 1981, this cultivar had 

stem-end russeting and internal breakdown. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright light yellow. Tender texture. Slightly 

tart, aromatic flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated good 

overall . 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Light yellow. Fine grainy texture (coarse in 

1981 ) . Good flavor. Rated good overall. 

Flavor and texture differences in both years tested indicate that more 
information is needed. 

0-661 

0-521 x Delicious. Parents include Melba and Red Delicious. Harvested 

early October. Processed mid-December. Medium-sized fruit. Low SS 

and medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Green-yellow. Tender, smooth texture. Slightly 

tart flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Green-yellow. Smooth texture. Very tart flavor. 

Rated poor overall . 

Greater commercial processing potential for slices than for sauce. 

0-663 

0-521 x T-3919. Parents include Melba, Red Delicious, and Mcintosh. 
Harvested early October. Processed late November. Small- to medium-sized 
fruit. Elongated shape. Medium SS and TA. 



- 16 - 

Slices : Tested 1 year. White. Soft texture. Fair flavor. Fair to 
good wholeness retention. Some slice breakdown during blanching. 
Rated poor overall . 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Smooth texture. Mild flavor. 
Rated poor overall . 

Limited or no commercial processing potential. 

0-665 

0-522 x Delicious. Parents include Melba and Red Delicious. 

Harvested early October. Processed mid-November. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and low to medium TA. Elongated shape. Slightly difficult 

peeler. Slight core browning. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright light yellow. Slightly tough texture. 

Mild flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Bright yellow. Slightly coarse grainy texture. 

Mild flavor. Rated good overall. 

Texture and color varied in both years tested. 

Good commercial processing potential. 

0-6611 

0-521 x T-3919. Parents include Melba, Red Delicious, and Mcintosh. 

Harvested late September. Processed mid-January. Medium-sized fruit. 

Slightly elongated. Good appearance. Medium SS and high TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Dull white. Very soft texture. Tart flavor. 

Poor wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Cream-white. Smooth texture. Very tart flavor. 

Rated poor overall . 



Limited or no commercial processing potential. 

OTHER TYPES (MOSTLY ESTABLISHED VARIETIES) 
Anderson Jonathan 






An open-pollinated seedling of Esopus x Spitzenberg. 

Harvested mid-October. Stores well until December. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and TA. (In 1981, high SS and TA. Some bitter pit. Kept 

well until mid-January.) Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 4 years. Bright yellow. Slightly coarse texture. 

Good flavor. Very good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 4 years. Bright yellow. Slightly coarse texture. 

Normal flavor. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential. 



- 17 - 



Chieftain 

Jonathan x Delicious. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed mid-January. Medium-sized fruit. 

Shape similar to that of Delicious. High SS and low to medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 3 years. Bright yellow. Soft, tender texture. 

Good flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 4 years. Bright intense yellow. Grainy texture. Normal 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential, particularly for sauce. 

Empi re 

Mcintosh x Delicious. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late November to early January. 
Medium-sized fruit. White flesh. Medium SS and TA. Easy peeler. 
Slices : Tested 5 years. Bright light yellow. Tender to slightly chewy 
texture. Mild to slightly tart flavor. Good wholeness retention despite 
tendency to some breakage during slice preparation. Rated good overall. 
Sauce : Tested 5 years. Light yellow. Fine grainy texture. Mild flavor 
Rated good overall . 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Excellent light yellow. Excellent total yield. 
Good pulp settlement during gravity clarification, giving good 
percentage of usable juice recovery. Excellent flavor. Fair specific 
gravity. Best of cultivars juiced in 1981. Rated excellent overall. 

Good commercial processing potential. 

George 

An open-pollinated seedling of Mcintosh. 

Harvested early October. Processed late November. Large-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and low TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright yellow. Slightly tough texture. Mild 

flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Bright medium yellow. Grainy texture. Mild 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential indicated but further testing is 
required. 



Ida red 



Jonathan x Wagener. Named in 1942 by University of Idaho. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed mid-January or later. Exceptional 

storage life. Medium-sized fruit. High SS and medium TA. Easy peeler 

Slices : Tested 6 years. Cream. Slightly tough texture. Mild flavor. 

Good wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 7 years. Cream-white. Slightly grainy texture. Mild 

flavor. Rated fair overall. 



- 1 



Juice : Tested 2 years. Excellent color. Good to excellent flavor. 
Good initial yield. Good pulp settlement during clarification, giving 
good percentage of usable juice recovery. Rated good overall. 






Good commercial processing potential for juice; limited for sauce and 
slices. 



Jonnee 






Bud mutation of Blackjon. 

Harvested early to mid-October. Processed early January. Medium-sized 

fruit. High SS and medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 3 years. Bright yellow. Tender, slightly grainy 

texture. Good flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 4 years . Bright yellow. Slightly grainy texture. 

Normal flavor. Rated good overall. 

Jonnee compares well with several reference varieties, such as Empire, 
but quality is usually lower than that of Northern Spy. 

Jerseyred 

Gallia Beauty x White Winter Pearmain. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late January. Medium-sized fruit. 

High SS and medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Light yellow. Soft texture. Normal flavor. 

Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Bright medium yellow. Smooth texture. Good 

flavor. Rated good overall. 

Slightly more commercial processing potential for sauce than for slices. 

Loyalist 

Formerly T-416. Named in 1979. Linda x Yellow Newtown. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late January. Medium-sized fruit. 

Cream flesh. High SS and medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 10 years. Bright yellow. Tender, crisp texture. Good 

flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 9 years. Bright yellow. Grainy texture. Good flavor. 

Rated good overall . 

Juice : Tested 2 years. Excellent color. Poor to fair flavor. Fair 

total yield. Good specific gravity. Poor percentage of usable juice 

after clarification. Rated fair overall. 

Compares well with Northern Spy in sauce and slice quality and is always 
in top 20% of cultivars tested. 



- 19 - 



Lindel 



Formerly T-397. Named in 1971. Richared Delicious x Linda. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed mid- January. Medium-sized fruit. 

Medium SS and low to medium TA. Has shape of Richared Delicious plus 

deep crevices. Difficult peeler. 

S 1 i ces : Tested 15 years. Bright medium yellow. Tender to slightly 

soft texture. Mild flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated 

good overall . 

Sauce : Tested 14 years. Bright intense yellow. Coarse grainy texture, 

Good flavor. Rated good overall. 

Juice : Tested 5 years. Fair to good color, total yield, and 

specific gravity. Fair percentage of usable juice recovery. Poor 

flavor. Rated fair overall. 

Good commercial processing potential for slices and sauce but not for 
juice. 

Melrose 

Jonathan x Delicious. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late January to early February. 

Large-sized fruit. High SS and medium TA. Difficult peeler. 

Slices : Tested 11 years. Bright light yellow. Good texture. Good 

flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 10 years. Bright medium yellow. Coarse grainy texture. 

Mild flavor. Requires a longer- than-usual blanch time. High water 

absorbency. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential. 

Moss's Seedling 

From seed sown at Chetwynd End Nurseries, Newport, Shropshire, England, 

in 1955. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late December. Large-sized fruit. 

High SS and medium TA. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright yellow. Tender, slightly soft texture 

Mild flavor. Fair to good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Bright yellow. Grainy texture. Slightly 

aromatic flavor. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential. 

Mutsu 

A seedling of Golden Delicious x Indo, from Japan. Called Crispin in 

England. 

Harvested late October. Processed mid-January. Large-sized fruit. 

In 1981, some bitter pit and some internal breakdown. Medium to high 

SS and medium TA. Difficult peeler. 



- 20 - 



Slices : Tested 4 years. Bright intense yellow. Soft texture. Fair 
to good flavor. Poor wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 
Sauce : Tested 5 years. Bright intense yellow. Grainy texture. 
Good flavor. Rated good overall. 

Fair commercial processing potential for slices. Sauce has good 
blending potential . 



Northern Spy 

Parentage unknown. 

Harvested late October. Processed early January. Large-sized fruit. 

Bitter pit most years. Medium to high SS and medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 20 years. Bright intense yellow. Good texture. Good 

flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated excellent overall. 

Sauce : Tested 19 years. Bright intense yellow. Very grainy texture. 

Good flavor. Rated excellent overall. 

Juice : Tested 2 years. Good color. Fair to good flavor. Good total 

yield. Good specific gravity. Good pulp settlement during gravity 

clarification. Fair percentage of usable juice recovery. Rated good 

overall . 

As it was 20 years ago, Northern Spy remains the high-quality standard 
variety for slices and sauce. 

Rhode Island Greening 

Parentage unknown. More than 200 years old. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed mid-January. Medium SS and TA. 

Storage quality variable unless picked at full maturity. Easy peeler. 

Slices : Tested 8 years. Green-tan yellow. Good texture. Fair flavor. 

Fair wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 7 years. Green-yellow. Grainy texture most years. 

Fair, slightly tart flavor. Rated good overall. 

Storage and processing qualities are influenced by harvest maturity; 
often picked before full maturity. 

Golden Russet 

Parentage unknown. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed late January. High SS and medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Bright glossy yellow. Soft texture. Fair 

flavor. Fair wholeness retention. Rated fair overall. 

Sauce : Tested 1 year. Bright yellow. Very grainy texture. Good mild 

flavor. A good base variety, useful in blends to improve overall color 

and grain. Rated excellent overall. 

Greater commercial processing potential for sauce than for slices. Well 
known in Quebec for its good cider-making qualities. 






- 21 - 



Sandel 



Named in 1979. Delicious x Sandow. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed mid-January to late January. Medium- 
sized fruit. Difficult to blanch. Medium SS and low TA. 
Slices : Tested 2 years. Good yellow color. Fair to good texture. 
Fair flavor. Excellent wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 
Sauce : Tested 5 years. Bright intense yellow. Grainy texture. 
High water absorbency. Good flavor. Rated good overall. 
Juice : Tested 1 year. Light amber. Mild, slightly aromatic flavor. 
Fair total yield. Fair percentage of usable juice recovery. Rated 
fair overall . 

The sauce quality of this cultivar would upgrade the quality of other 
cultivars in blends. Fair commercial processing potential for slices. 
One year's testing suggests limited commercial processing potential 
for juicing. 



Spartan 



Mcintosh x Yellow Newtown seedling named in 1936. 

Harvested late September. Processed late December. Small- to medium- 
sized fruit. Medium to high SS and low to medium TA. 
Slices : Tested 8 years. Poor color. Poor to fair texture. Fair 
flavor. Poor wholeness retention. Rated poor overall. 
Sauce : Tested 7 years . Light yellow. Fair texture. Fair flavor. 
Rated fair overall . 

Juice : Tested 3 years. Excellent color. Fair to good flavor. Fair 
total yield. Rated good overall. 



Some commercial processing potential for juice and sauce but not for 
slices. 



Spigold 



Red Spy x Golden Delicious. 

Harvested mid-October. Processed mid-December. Large-sized fruit. 

Medium to high SS and medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright intense yellow. Tender, slightly soft 

texture. Excellent flavor. Good wholeness retention. Rated excellent 

overal 1 . 

Sauce : Tested 5 years. Intense yellow. Grainy texture. Mild flavor. 

Rated good overal 1 . 

Juice : Tested 1 year. Poor dark amber. Excellent flavor. Good 

specific gravity. Good initial yield. Good pulp settlement during 

gravity clarification, giving excellent percentage of usable juice 

recovery. Rated good overall. 

Good commercial processing potential for slices and sauce. Poor 
color lowered its potential for juice in the year tested. 



- 22 - 



Tydeman's Red 

Mcintosh x Worcester Pearmain. Named in 1964. 

Harvested early September. Processed late November; may offer better 

potential if processed earlier, at a firmer maturity. Large-sized 

fruit. Medium SS and TA. 

Slices : Tested 1 year. Medium yellow. Tender, dry texture. 

Good flavor. Very good wholeness retention. Rated good overall. 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Light tan to light yellow. Smooth texture. 

Mild flavor. Rated fair overall. 

This variety probably has more commercial processing potential for 
slices than for sauce. 

West Virginia Red York 

Bud mutation of York Imperial. 

Harvested late October. Processed late January. Medium-sized fruit. 

In 1981, some storage breakdown. Remains firm even at full maturity. 

High SS and low to medium TA. 

Slices : Tested 2 years. Bright medium yellow. Tender, crisp texture. 

Slightly aromatic flavor. Excellent wholeness retention. Rated good 

overall . 

Sauce : Tested 2 years. Excellent color, permitting upgrading of 

other cultivars in blends. Coarse grainy texture. Mild flavor. Rated 

good overall . 



- 23 - 



Table 2. Summary of quality ratings for the most promising apple cultivars 
tested* 







Slices 




Si 


auce 




J 


nice 




Cultivar 


o 

o 
o 


CD 

S- 

+-> 
X 


o 

> 

fO 


to 
to 

<u 

c 

CD 

o 


o 
o 


CD 

s- 

Z5 
X 

<u 

1— 


o 

> 

iZ 


i- 
o 

o 


o 

> 
to 


-o 

O) 


Anderson Jonathan 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 








Britegold** 
BC-10C-6-12 


G 
G 


G 
G 


G 
G 


G 
G 


F 


F 


F 








Chieftain 


G 


G 


G 


F 


E 


G 


G 








Empi re 


G 


G 


G 


G 


F 


G 


G 


E 


E 


G 


George 

Golden Delicious 


E 
E 


G 
G 


G 
G 


G 
G 


G 

G 


G 
G 


G 
G 








Golden Delicious C-449 


E 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 








Golden Russet 


G 


F 


F 


F 


E 


E 


G 








Honeygold 


E 


E 


G 


E 


G 


G 


F 








I da red 


F 


F 


G 


G 


F 


G 


G 


E 


G 


G 


Jonnee 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 








Loyalist 


E 


G 


G 


G 


E 


G 


G 


E 


F 


F 


Mcintosh VC309 


P 


P 


G 


P 


P 


F 


G 


F 


E 


G 


Melrose 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 








Miller Sturdeespur Delicious 


E 


F 


G 


G 


E 


F 


G 


P 


P 


G 


Moss's Seedling 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


F 








Mutsu 


E 


F 


G 


F 


E 


G 


G 








Northern Spy 


E 


E 


E 


E 


E 


E 


E 


G 


G 


G 


0-521** 


P 


G 


G 


F 


F 


F 


F 


F 


G 


G 


0-591** 


E 


G 


G 


G 


F 


F 


F 








0-6412** 


F 


F 


F 


F 


E 


G 


G 








0-6413** 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 








0-665** 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 








Prima** 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


E 


F 


F 


Priscilla** 


G 


G 


G 


F 


G 


G 


G 


F 


F 


F 


Rhode Island Greening 


G 


G 


G 


F 


F 


G 


G 








Ri chared Delicious 


E 


G 


G 


G 


E 


F 


G 









- 24 



Sandel 


G 


G 


F 


E 


E 


G 


G 


G 


F 


F 


Sinta 


E 


G 


G 


F 


F 


G 


G 








Sir Prize** 


G 


F 


G 


P 


G 


G 


G 








Smoothee 


G 


F 


G 


F 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


F 


Spigold 


E 


E 


E 


E 


E 


G 


G 


F 


E 


G 


Starkrimson Delicious 


E 


G 


G 


G 


P 


P 


P 


P 


G 


G 


Trent** 


G 


F 


G 


G 


G 


G 


G 


E 


F 


F 


Tydeman's Red 


G 


G 


G 


E 


F 


F 


F 








West Virginia Red York 


G 


G 


F 


E 


E 


F 


G 









*McIntosh VC309, Northern Spy, Richared Delicious, Golden Delicious, Empire, 
and Idared are included as standards regardless of, "promising" rating. 



**Scab-resistant type 







CONVERSION FACTORS 








Approximate 








conversion 




Metric units 




factors 


Results in: 


LINEAR 










millimetre (mm) 




X 


0.04 


inch 


centimetre (cm) 




X 


0.39 


inch 


metre (m) 




X 


3.28 


feet 


kilometre (km) 




X 


0.62 


mile 


AREA 










square centimetre 


(cm 2 ) 


X 


0.15 


square inch 


square metre (m 2 ) 




X 


1.2 


square yards 


square kilometre (km 2 ) 


X 


0.39 


square mile 


hectare (ha) 




X 


2.5 


acres 


VOLUME 










cubic centimetre (cm^) 


X 


0.06 


cubic inch 


cubic metre (m^) 




X 


35.31 


cubic feet 


cubic metre (m^) 




X 


1.31 


cubic yards 


CAPACITY 










litre (L) 




X 


0.035 


cubic foot 


hectolitre (hl_) 




X 


22 


gallons 


hectolitre (hl_) 




X 


2.5 


bushels 


WEIGHT 










gram (g) 




X 


0.04 


oz avdp 


kilogram (kg) 




X 


2.2 


lb avdp 


tonne (t) 




X 


1.1 


short tons 


AGRICULTURAL 










litres per hectare (L/ha) 


X 


0.089 


gallons per acre 


litres per hectare (L/ha) 


X 


0.357 


quarts per acre 


litres per hectare (L/ha) 


X 


0.71 


pints per acre 


millilitres per hectare (mL/ha) 


X 


0.014 


fl. oz per acre 


tonnes per hectare (t/ha) 


X 


045 


tons per acre 


kilograms per hectare (kg/ ha) 


X 


0.89 


lb per acre 


grams per hectare 


(g/ha) 


X 


0014 


oz avdp per acre 


plants per hectare 


(plants/ ha) 


X 


0.405 


plants per acre 



WfiVj BIBIIOTHEQUE 




AGRICULTURE CANADA OTTAWA K li o C 5 

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